Knowledge Centre: Learn More About LEDs

What is LED?

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a tiny, electronic semiconductor that converts electric energy into visible light. The chemical compound used within an LED determines its color, brightness and power efficiency. Unlike incandescent lamps, LEDs have no filaments that can burn out or fail.

Surface Mount LEDs

Surface Mount Devices, or SMD for short, refers to the LED lead frame mounting method. LEDs are mounted to the surface of the circuit board. The SMD contains red, green and blue die.

Through-Hole LEDs

Through-hole LEDs are mounted with leads protruding through the circuit board and appear to stand taller. Each LED is a single-color die of either red, green or blue.

LEDs come in two different forms

Manufacturers use several types of LEDs to construct digital displays. The two most common are Through-Hole LEDs and Surface Mount Device (SMD) LEDs, also known as Surface Mount Technology (SMT). Each type has its respective advantages that make them preferable for different applications.

SMD LEDs

Total light emitted isn't concentrated in a focused area since SMD LEDs do not have directional reflector cups. Instead light disperses evenly across both horizontal and vertical angles, providing wider viewing angles. This makes SMD LEDs an excellent choice for most indoor applications as well as some tighter pitch outdoor applications.

Benefits of SMD:
  • Outstanding color blending at short viewing distance
  • No color shift at extreme angles
  • Wide viewing angle

Through-Hole LEDs

Through-hole LEDs use a reflector cup and an epoxy lens package. This combination as well as the type of die used, plays a role in determining the elliptical viewing cone produced. A through-hole LED's reflector cup focuses the light emitted by the die into a specific viewing area.

Benefits of Through-Hole:
  • Optimized for moderate to longer viewing distance
  • Louvers deflect sunlight for higher contrast
  • Black matte finish reduces reflection
  • Brighter than SMD LEDs

What is a module?

LED modules are made up of parts that form the building blocks of LED displays. Rows of modules line together to arrange the LEDs in different variations depending on the requirements.

Pixel pitch and Resolution

Pixel pitch influences the resolution of the LED display screen. More pixels placed together means higher resolution. High resolution means the image will be clear to viewers even when viewed from close proximity. We will help you to balance the cost as well as the perfect pixel pitch for your installation, to ensure the best fit for your viewing experience as well as your budget.

Pixel Pitch in a nutshell

Pixel pitch is essential for implementing successful digital signage programs because they influence the resolution of the display screen. More pixels placed together means higher resolution. If pixels are set further apart, say, in a P16 outdoor LED display, the resolution will be lower. High resolution means the image will be clear to viewers even when viewed from close proximity. Whereas lower resolution means large LED display panels may look great from a distance, but if you move closer to them, they will become uncomfortable to view.

01

Pixels are the smallest units on a digital board

02

Each pixel is made up of a group of 3 light emitting diodes (LED) red, green and blue

03

Pixel pitch refers to the distance between two pixels on an LED screen

04

Lower the pixel pitch, the higher the resolution

05

Higher the pixel pitch, the lower the resolution

How does pixel pitch affect minimum viewing distances?

Viewing distances are calculated based on the display type and the distance from the display. Each display will have a minimum and a maximum viewing distance that may vary based on application and intended use.

Selecting the right pixel pitch is important because they influence the resolution of the display screen. High resolution means the image will be clear to viewers even when viewed from close proximity. Whereas lower resolution means large LED display panels may look great from a distance, but if you move closer to them, they will become uncomfortable to view.

What is the difference between indoor and outdoor LED displays?

Outdoor LED

Outdoor LEDs are designed to be more durable, weatherproof, and are brighter. Even if an indoor location is receiving a lot of direct sunlight, or is exposed to rain and moisture, it is recommended to use an outdoor LED module.

Features of Outdoor LED
  • Waterproof and durable
  • Able to take extreme weather conditions
  • High brightness 4000nits to 10,000nits
  • Dustproof

The advantages of a LED Display over projector screens

LEDs can display visuals that are bright and crisp even in a fully lit room, unlike projectors which require a dimly lit room. You can also build an LED Display to any size and shape, and it is also much easier to calibrate the color using the installed software. With a projector, you are forced to display visuals in a set resolution and there is nothing you can do once the lamp degrades.

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